Toads are different to frogs in many ways.
- Toads look different to frogs.
- They have a 'warty' skin and waddle rather than jump and are larger than frogs.
- A toad can live up to 40 years.
- Toads are 'at risk' and are protected from sale.
Toads in Spring:
- When the weather warms up in Spring toads will leave their places of hibernation.
- They want to get back to their breeding ponds - used by their family for generations.
- They will try to get back, even if a busy road is now in the way.
- Toads can travel up to 2 km from where they spend the rest of the year.
- People operate as 'Toad Wardens" at well known crossing points to help the toads survive by carrying them across the new roads.
- The male grabs his female in an 'amplexus' grasp - sometimes even before they reach water.
- He fertilises the egg strings as she lays them while they swim around during mating to avoid other males.
- Toads can occupy a deeper area of the pond than frogs as they produce a nasty tasting toxin so they are safer from predators.
- Even toad tadpoles taste unpleasant and can survive in open water in a pond shared with fish.
- The strings wrap around the deep water submerged oxygenator plants and stems of upright plants on the deeper shelves.
- Toads lay egg strings well under the water surface. So an emergent pond plant with at least 4" of submerged, upright bushy growth is useful.
- The stems of a plant like this Caltha palustris which are under the water surface has been used by the female toad to inter-twine her spawn.
- She releases masses of these strings of jelly each about 1/2" wide containing about 2000 eggs in total and she leaves them draped around the plants underwater.
- Eggs develop into black tadpoles in 10 days that swim in shoals in deep water areas of the pond.
- Before the legs are formed feed them on a vegetable based food – particularly important in a new pond – use Early stage – Tadpole food.
- Metamorphosis takes place over the next 10-12 weeks to change from tadpoles to toadlets with fully formed legs ready to leave the pond.
- In a new pond or with a large number of tadpoles in your pond supplement after the growth of legs with late stage (high protein) tadpole foods.
Timetable of toad spawn development 2019:
- 22nd April - first toad spawn strings with rounded eggs.
- 2nd May - the eggs were elongated and oval in shape inside the spawn string.
- Some had left the spawn string and were starting to swim individually as oval tadpoles.
- 7th May - some tadpoles with tails as well as others still lagging behind in the earlier stages of development.
- June and July - tadpoles were getting larger and swimming freely in the trough.
- All tadpoles fed with Early Stage Tadpole Food.
- 8th August - first toad tadpoles with back legs but with their tails still in place.
- We started feeding Late Stage Tadpole Food.
- 27th August (4 months from spawn) - some tiny toads hopping amongst the pond plants with 4 legs and no tails.
- 10th September some young toadlets had ventured out of the water and climbed amongst the moist plants nearby.
- At each point that we saw some new development there were still others at earlier stages that would catch up within the next couple of weeks.
Toads in Summer:
- The adults will leave the pond shortly after mating to return to their hiding places in long grass or under sheds where they sleep all day and forage for insects at night.
- Toadlets will benefit from the cover and protection supplied by moist or waterlogged plantings around the pond edge to hide in during late Summer/Autumn as they mature.
You might like early stemmed plants for toad spawning and feeds to help tadpoles thrive: